Types of Projective Techniques

Projective Techniques in research methodology

Projective Techniques in research methodology

 

(i)  Word association tests:

This technique is a quick, easy to administer and frequently used in advertising research and qualities associated with brand name.  Generally 50 to hundred 100 words are administered to the respondent and they will be required to give their response with suitable matching word which occur to their mind without thinking much.  The analysis of the matching words give the clue whether particular word can be used for the intended purposes.

(ii)  Sentence completion test:

This method is used often to develop hypothesis and in the construction of questionnaires.  In this technique the respondent will be served with incomplete sentence and he will be asked to complete the sentence.  On the same subject several sentences may be served.  These are analysed to ascertain the views of the respondents. This technique is an extension of word association test. This may pose problems in administering it to multi dimensional responses.

(iii)  Story completion test: 

here the respondent is given a story line focusing on the subject matter under study and will be asked to complete the story.  Inferences are drawn based  upon the responses.

(iv)  Verbal projection tests:

here the respondents motivations are drawn from his verbal reactions to the other’s acts.

(v) Pictorial techniques:

following are some of the pictorial techniques

  • Thematic Appreciation Test ( TAT): the respondent will be supplied with set of picture, some are clear and others are ambiguous. Based upon their description of the pictures the inferences about the respondent’s attitude and motives are drawn.
  • Rorschach Test: pre printed symmetrical but meaningless ink blot (10 in number) cards are supplied to the respondents. Their responses describing in their own way are analysed based upon predetermined psychological frame.
  • Rosenzweig Test: cartoon pictures with empty balloon space above will be given to the respondents asking them to fill the balloon space with his own words. Based upon his response inferences are drawn.
  • Holtzman Inkblot Test (HIT): this is an improvement over Rorschach Test. Here 45 inkblot papers based on color, movement , shading are used. Only one response per card is obtained from the subject.  It is interpreted at three levels for appropriateness.  From this ‘accuracy’(F) and ‘inaccuracy’ (F-) of respondents’ perceptions are estimated.  The respondent’s affectional and emotional needs are ascertained based upon his color and shading options.  His dynamic aspects are assessed based upon movement responses.
  • Tomkins-Horn Picture Arrangement Test (THPAT): twenty five sequential plates containing sketches are used in this method. The respondents will be asked to arrange the sequence of these plates according to their perception and based upon their reasoning. The responses are analysed based upon certain norms of interpretation. These are generally used for group administration

 (vi) Play Techniques:

Manipulative games are administrated to the respondents and they were asked to play freely.  The manner in which they organize and play, will be the basis to know their traits and emotional intensities.  Doll Play Test administered to the children is one such technique.

(vii) Quizzes, tests and examinations:

Abilities, memorizing capabilities are gauged by using different format and methods.

(viii) Sociometry:

It is a recently developed technique to study the motives of the respondents and to describe the social relationship among individuals including acceptabilities and repulsions.  Sociogram charts highlighting the sociometric choices  are used for this purpose.  According to Giles under this an attempt is made to trace the flow of information amongst groups and then examine the ways in which new ideas are diffused.  Sociograms are constructed to identify leaders and followers

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