Biological Challenges in Adolescence
Biological changes clearly present the adolescent with major challenges.The adolescent has to cope with body changes which may be disturbing and worrying and with the emergence of sexual urges that drive the young person into the exploration of new relationships which themselves produce new social challenges.
to constantly find fault in adult’s position
to be overly dramatic Adolescence is a stressful period of growth.This period poses many challenges to the adolescent such as finding identity and values. According to Weiten(2007), adolescents do experience more unpredictable and more negative emotions than their parents or younger children do. Also, they may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, careless sexual practices, and dangerous driving etc.
Of course, adolescence is not necessarily the time of psychological turmoil (Plotnik, 2005). For some adolescents, it is a time of adaptation and improvement health, but for others it is a period of mal adaptation and increasing levels of psychopathology (Holmbeck et al., 2005).
By way of cognitive development, the adolescent develop a skill for abstract thinking, learn howto reflect about relationship issues distinguishes new ways of processing information and secures to think creatively and critically. Noticeable changes in intellectual
development take placeduring adolescence. The three main characteristics of adolescent
thoughts are as follows:
a) Capacity to combine several factors and find solution to a problem.
b) Ability to see that what affect one factor will have on another factor.
c) Ability to combine and separate factors in a probabilistic manner.
However, these characteristics of an adolescent thought may not apply to each and every child. Important variations have often been seen in individuals of the same culture.
Even though they can think and act in a more creative way, they may experience difficulties in accepting or choosing the right process. Even if they adopt the situation well, they have challenges of getting accepted by the elders.
Development of Abstract Thinking
According to Piaget (1948/1966), during early adolescence young people typically move from the limitations of concrete thinking to being able to deal cognitively with ideas, concepts and abstract theories. The adolescent is able to become passionately interested in abstract concepts and notions and is therefore able to discern what is real from what is ideal.The adolescent is challenged both in the development of the cognitive skills and in their use.As confidence is gained in using such skills, it is likely that they will be tried out in new situations, but not always with success.Clearly, failure to develop abstract thinking is the main challenge.
Change in Attitudes, Interest and Interpersonal Relationships The adolescence brings a change in the routine pattern of behavior, approach and individuality. There are noticeable changes in the adolescent’s social concern.Adolescents use innovative set of values and interests in selection of friends and social group. The peer group influences the attitudes, values and behavior more than the child’s own family. Interest in world affairs,politics and government often develop during this period.
Some of the recreational interests during adolescence are sports and games, scholastic and extracurricular activities. There is genuine desire to help others and engaging in benevolent activities like collecting funds for a cause, arranging charity show etc. If they succeed in adjusting to the situation they may experience less anxious or frustrated.
It must be noted that along with these changes adolescence also brings in negative syndrome like being self-centered, showing off, emotional immaturity, stubbornness, irritability, unsatisfactory relationship with the family and other unattractive personality traits.This can be one of the main cognitive challenges.
The Ability to Think Critically and Creatively
Adolescents develop the ability to think rationally and to use their ability for reasonable
thinking to make judgments and decisions for themselves.They are able to identify and
delineate evils, congregate information, form uncertain conclusion and judge these to
Creative thinking involves conflicting thinking, resistance, uniqueness, the concern of isolated potential and the aptitude to consider a variety of solutions to the same problem.
Adolescents develop the ability to think creatively and are consequently better able to understand and use metaphor (Daceyand Kenny, 1997). If they failed in achieving this
end result will be failure.
Development of Peer Culture
Children talk to each other differently than they talk with adults. They use specialized vocabulary, phrases and slang. Thereabout certain topics and they share background information on television and movies. They begin to dress alike.Often this result in conflict at home especially with the parents.
These special customs bind children together as they form peer groups, hanging out together because of their shared interests. By participating in peer groups, children learn howto cooperate and lead and howto work towards collective goals.
Peer acceptance is an important part of development during these ages.Peer acceptance
is basically how likable a child is to his/her peers.Do the child’s peers see him/her as a
worthy social partner? Peer acceptance is a powerful predictor of later adjustment.
Of course, the development of peer groups can have negative consequences.Children
who do not know the peer culture rules may be excluded or bullied. Children can be brutal. Peer groups can reject those peers who do not conform to the rules of the group.
The Development of Friendships
But during this age, children begin to select friends based on personality characteristics,
not just because they like to play with the same toy.. Friendships at this age reflect mutual appreciation for personality traits and trust. Children at this age report that good friendship is based on being able to count on someone. Friendships become longer,with most lasting for several years. Friendships are important to child development.
Through them, children learn the importance of emotional commitment. They come to realize that close relationships can survive disagreements. They learn how to resolve conflict with people they like in respectful ways that are intended to continue the relationship.