Dimensions of Discrimination
Gender-based violence – Women tend to face higher rates of violence because discrimination on the basis of gender renders them among the most powerless members of society. Racial discrimination often results in violence. Women who face discrimination based on both race and gender are thus doubly at risk of violence. Women from marginalized communities may be reluctant to report violence for fear of inaction or indifference by, or hostility from, State authorities who may even condone such violence, or for fear of being stigmatized within their own communities. They may also face language barriers or cultural insensitivity when seeking redress.
In some societies, gender-based violence may be perceived as “justified” by racial, national, cultural or religious traditions, and a State’s reluctance to remedy the situation can pose further problems for women. Those wishing to challenge such practices are often accused of adopting Western cultural norms and turning their backs on tradition.
There are several forms of economic discrimination. The most common form of discrimination is wage inequality, followed by unequal hiring practices. Most forms of discrimination against minorities involve lower wages and unequal hiring practices. Hiring discrimination is similar to wage discrimination in its pattern. It typically consists of employers choosing to hire a white candidate over a minority candidate, or a male candidate over a female candidate, to fill a position. Even so, studies have shown that it is
easier for a white male to get a job than it is for an equally qualified man of color or woman of any race. Many positions are cycled, where a company fills a position with a worker and then lays them off and hires a new person, repeating until they find someone they feel is “suitable”—which is often not a minority.
While hiring discrimination is the most highly visible aspect of economic discrimination, it is often the most uncommon. Increasingly strong measures against discrimination have made hiring discrimination much more difficult for employers to engage in. However this is only the case in formal hiring arrangements, with corporations or others subject to public scrutiny and overview. Private hiring, such as apprenticeships of electricians, plumbers,
carpenters, and other trades is almost entirely broken down along racial lines, with almost no women in these fields and most minorities training those of their own race.
Although price discrimination mentions services, service discrimination is when certain services are not offered at all to minorities, or are offered only inferior versions. According to at least one study, most consumer discrimination falls into this category, since it is more difficult to verify and prove. Some assertions of discrimination have included:
• offering only high-cost plans for insurance or refusal to cover minorities
• refusing to offer financing to minorities
• denial of service
Who Are The Educationally Discriminated In India?
• Various studies have pointed out that the children from socially and economically deprived communities hardly get any chance to get a minimum level of education and most of them are working children. There is a general agreement about the segment of society that is not attending school and they belong to Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled
Tribes (ST), minority,
• Urban poor, other backward castes and people living in remote rural areas .According to the NSSO 551h Round data ( I 999-2000), only about 27 per cent of the rural males and about 12 per cent of rural females from the poorest 20per cent families could complete primary and higher level of schooling as against about 66 per cent male and 42 per cent female population from the
• Richest 20 per cent families. Similarly, only 30 per cent people belonging to SC / ST complete their primary schooling against nearly 48 per cent from the higher castes. It is experienced that a sizeable section of the child population belonging to backward communities living in rural areas is still deprived of basic education. Many of them are forced to join the workforce at an early age.
• Girls do not attend school as they remain engaged in household chores, particularly sibling care and boys are involved in wage-earning activities. Marginalization of these groups seems to continue in a vicious circle and it is experienced that a low level of education is both the cause and manifestation of backwardness of marginalized groups, especially those with a low income
• Making them more vulnerable to poverty and exclusion from the mainstream development process generation after generation.