Dimensions of Poverty
The two main dimensions of poverty in India are:
i) Regional dimensions of poverty
ii) Social dimensions of poverty.
iii) Human development dimension of poverty
1. Regional Dimension of Poverty
There poverty differences between the developed and developing countries and
within the same continent some countries and regions have less poverty as compared to the other. For example the poverty is more pervasive in South Asia as compared to other part of the Asia. In the same region and within the same country some regions suffer from more poverty as compared to other region. For example in India the poverty is less in northern region states as compared to the eastern region states. Poverty in India has a regional dimension. Poverty profiles differ in rural and urban areas. They also differ widely across states and regions of India. This is primarily due to wide regional disparities. Regional imbalance in economic growth in major states is observed from the variations in the growth of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP).
There is wide interstate imbalance in the economic growth of rich and poor states of India. During the post reforms period (1990-2004), some states have accelerated and some states have decelerated in terms economic development. There is a wide difference in the
investment climate of different states of Indian union. Kerala’s achievement in social development and reduction in poverty are very impressive. The percentage of poor in rural areas of Kerala declined from 50 per cent in 1973 to 12.7 per cent in 1999-2000. Its record of overcoming poverty, even with moderate economic growth has been attributed to its effective implementation of land reforms, comprehensive social and food security coverage, decentralized system of governance, and highly conscious civil society. The rural–urban divide in India is widening after economic reforms. There is deceleration in agricultural growth, which is the matter of concern in employment generation and poverty
2. Social Dimension of Poverty
Poverty in India is not merely an economic phenomenon but also a social one. Poverty is seen today as an outcome of multiple deprivations. It is disproportionately high among SCs and STs. Poverty gets disproportionately Poverty concentrated among casual labourers. Growing dependency of rural and urban households on casual labour market exposes the poor to market risks and tends to increase transient poverty, whereby households move in and out of poverty due to fluctuations in the labour market. The incidence of poverty among SCs is very high in Bihar, MP and UP in both rural and urban areas. In terms of income poverty and other indicators of human development such as education and health, STs are at the bottom. The gender dimension of poverty is very important in India. There is gender discrimination against women in the labour market. A
majority of women are illiterate. The female members of the poor household
suffer the most from all kinds of deprivation.
3. Human Development Dimension of Poverty
The human development dimension of poverty become popular after the publication of human development report by the UNDP in 1990s. This dimension acknowledge that the human poverty influences and being influenced by the income poverty. Because of low income, the education, health and per capita income of the family become low. It is customarily found that the family with illiterate and low level of education are suffer from deeper poverty as compared to the family with higher level of education and skill education. The unskilled labour force also get lower wage rate than their counterpart skilled labour force.
As far as health is concerned health and poverty are interlinked. Families with it members suffering from sever morbidities drag towards poverty.