Hyper kinetic Disorders
This is a syndrome first described by Heinrich Hoff in 1854.Attention deficit disorder is of 4 clinical types:with hyperactivity,without hyperactivity, residual type, and with conduct disorder. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity(ADHD) is the commonest type.
This group of disorders is characterized by: early onset; a combination of overactive, poorly modulated behaviour with marked inattention and lack of persistent task involvement; and pervasiveness over situations and persistence over time of these behavioural characteristics.
Hyper kinetic disorders always arise early in development (usually in the first 5 years of life). Their chief characteristics are lack of persistence in activities that require cognitive involvement, and a tendency to move from one activity to another without completing anyone, together with disorganized, ill-regulated, and excessive activity.These problems usually persist through school years and even in to adult life,but many affected individuals show a gradual improvement in activity and attention. Hyper kinetic disorders are several times more frequent in boys than in girls.Associated reading difficulties (and/or other scholastic problems) are common.
Signs and symptoms
Inattention,hyper activity and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. The symptoms of ADHD are especially difficult to define because it is hard to draw the line at where normal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity end and clinically significant levels requiring intervention begin.To be diagnosed with ADHD, symptoms must be observed in two different settings for six months or more and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.
The symptom categories of ADHDin children yield three potential classifications of ADHD—predominantly in attentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type,or combined type if criteria for both sub types are met.
Predominantly inattentive type symptoms may include:
Be easily distracted,miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something enjoyable
Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new or trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things(e.g.,pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities.
Not seem to listen when spoken to.
Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly.
Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others.
Struggle to follow in structions.
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms may include:
Fidget and squirm in their seats.
Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight.
Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time.
Be constantly in motion.
Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.. and also the semanife stations primarily of impulsivity:
Be very impatient.
Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences.
Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games.
Most people exhibit some of these behaviors,but not to the degree where such behaviors significantly interfere with a person’s work,relationships,or studies.The core impairments are consistent even in different cultural contexts.
Symptoms may persist into adulthood for up to half of children diagnosed with ADHD. Residual type is diagnosed in a patient with a past history of attention deficit disorder and presence of a few residual features in adulthood. Several other abnormalities may be associated with these disorders. Hyper kinetic children are often reckless and impulsive, prone to accidents, and find themselves in disciplinary trouble because of unthinking (rather than deliberately defiant) breaches of rules.Their relationships with adults are often socially dis inhibited,with a lack of normal caution and reserve; they are unpopular with other children and may become isolated. Cognitive impairment is common, and specific delays in motor and language development are disproportionately frequent.