Indian Stand on NPT and CTBT
Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
The NPT is the most widely accepted arms control agreement. The Treaty was opened for signature on 01 July 1968. The Treaty entered into force with the deposit of US ratification on 05 March 1970. The important provisions of the treaty are as under
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) necessitates the five acknowledged nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, and China) not to transfer nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive devices, or their technology to any non-nuclear-weapon state.
Non-nuclear-weapon States Parties undertake not to acquire or produce nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices.
All nuclear materials in peaceful civil facilities under the jurisdiction of the state must be declared to the IAEA, the IAEA may consult with the state regarding special inspections within or outside declared facilities.
First, the NPT was extended for an indefinite duration andwithout conditions.
Second, Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferationand Disarmament were worked out to guide the parties to thetreaty in the next phase of its implementation.
Third, an enhanced review process was established for future review conferences.
Finally, a resolution endorsed the establishment of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.
It is important to note that Israel, India, and Pakistan have never been signatories of the Treaty, and North Korea withdrew from the Treaty in 2003.
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
The CTBT treaty was thrown open for signature in 1996 by the UNGA. The CTBT has established a global norm against nuclear testing and significantly contributed to the world
community’s efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and to promote nuclear disarmament. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is intended to prohibit all nuclear weapon test explosions. Article XIV of the Treaty requires ratification by 44
named states, before the Treaty can enter into force.
Out of these 44 states,
Three states – India, Pakistan, and North Korea – have not signed the Treaty.
China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, and the United States – have signed but not ratified the Treaty.
India was actively engaged in the negotiation of CTBT. However the final provisions of the treaty did not address Indian concerns on the issues such as
Issues concerning to India’s security and strategic autonomy
The treaty is flawed and discriminatory as it favors few nuclear powers India did not sign on these treaties because
These treaties were designed to legitimize, legalize the nuclear capabilities of the nuclear weapon states
The treaty was biased and attempted to create nuclear hegemony of few states.
The treaty divided the world into two groups-nuclear have and nuclear have not.
While doing so, the treaty allowed nuclear have to maintain their nuclear weapons and created a structural mechanism to prevent nuclear have not from going nuclear.
These treaties do not include any time bound programme for the elimination of nuclear weapons or for nuclear disarmament. The treaty was not compatible with the Indian goal of complete nuclear disarmament.
Moreover India wanted to maintain its autonomy in nuclear area. It wanted to keep its nuclear option open and continue fissile material production in the backdrop of volatile security environment in south Asia.
The NPT has legitimized nuclear arsenals of the NPT states possessing nuclear weapons into perpetuity
The NPT is thus a major obstacle to the goal of global nuclear disarmament.
The provisions of the treaty are contrary to its national interests or infringe on its sovereignty.
India has also made it clear that it will not join the NPT as a nonnuclear weapon state.