John Locke theory of property, consent and government
Locke on Human Nature:
Locke did not express his views on human nature systematically, and his views assembled from the Essay Concerning Human Understanding and the Second Treatise, where he dispersed his views. He says that human beings are decent and have been capable with natural social makeup, they love peace and do not quarrel and are not selfish always. Locke considered all the human beings as equal in the moral sense and enjoy definite natural rights like right to life, liberty, property. The views of Locke are just opposite to the views of Hobbes, like Hobbes unable to give any scientific reason for his views on human nature.
Views on State of Nature:
His views on state of nature are extension of his logical thought of human nature, he did not considered the state of nature as the state of war of each against all, thinks that it is a period of peace, good-will, mutual assistance, and preservation. He thinks that state of nature is not pre-social but a pre-political condition. The state of nature was not for the war but for peace.
Views on Law of Nature:
His concept on law of nature inhabits an important place in his thoughts, he asserted that, it governs the life of men and civil society and refrain men from conquering each other’s rights and the law of nature is observed, the execution of law depends upon the community members. Every member has the right to punish those who is an offender of natural law and maintain it properly.
Views on Social Contract:
He did not give any logical answer and said that, the deficits in the law of nature make the man to leave the nature of state and get into the an agreement for the formation of the state, the deficiencies are, lack of an established, settled and known law, which can be understood by each individual by his way and lead to misunderstanding. And the third, is lack of an executive organ which enforce a just decision. This is a contract of each with all: it is a social contract by which every individual decide to surrender to the community as a whole. The individual yields the right to understand the law of nature for themselves. Unlike Hobbes who gave absolute powers to sovereign ruler, Locke give only certain powers to community. Locke asserted that, sovereign as a party to the contract and much confined by the understanding of natural law as members. He was so persuaded that monarch hurt from the touch of love and did not give absolute powers to monarch.
The other important feature of his contract is that it is undisputed, men have freedom and independent in the state of nature, nobody can forced to join the politics against his will. His contract is mainly based on approval of the people. The contract is irrevocable, once the people enter the contract means they cannot reverse it except by the government.
Views on State:
The views of Locke on state are quite different from that of Hobbes, Hobbes stated that it, as a requirement to guard the life of individual and gave absolute powers to it. Locke stated that, law of nature, to remove some suspicions and he gave different way of thought to it.
1 He stated that state to have three types of powers such as, legislative, executive and federative powers. He declares that the legislative powers are most vital and elected it as “Supreme power of the Commonwealth”. Though he gave supreme powers to legislature he did not give absolute powers. He stated that the relation between community and government is lies with trust between each other. The executive power which consist of judicial power, and very important for the government to run and he gave subordinate position to it, he limited its power it depends on the legislative power. He separated the powers of legislative and executive powers. His apples for constitutional or limited government as against the despotic or absolute rule.
Locke’s Theory of Property:
It is imperative to note that he used the term ‘property’ in two intellects. In the broad sense he suggests by it the right to life, liberty and estate. In the narrow sense he uses it for the right to possess and retain one’s estate