Kinds of Social Interaction
Cooperation is a conjunctive social process.Co-operation generally means working together for a common world. The termco-operation derived from two Latin words; ‘co’ meaning together ‘operation’ meaning work. So cooperation means join work or working together for common rewards.According to Eldredge & Merril (1994), co-operation is a form of social interaction where in two or more persons work together to gain a common end. There are different types of Co-operation.
(1) Direct co-operation: when two or more individual have the face to face contact, communication, relationship there occurs direct cooperation. Performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.E.g.: class, family, friends.
(2) Indirect co-operation: In the indirect co-operation people work individually for the attainment of common objectives. People do unlike task towards a similar end. In the indirect co-operation face to face relationship will be comparativelyless.E.g.: different department under one institution.
(3)Primary co-operation: It is found in primary group such as family, peer group, clubs, etc.Here there is the identities given importance and also each member work for the betterment of all and rewards will be shared among them.
(4) Secondary co-operation: Secondary co-operation is characteristic feature of modern society because in the relationship will be highly formalized and specialized. e.g.; in different political parties different NGO’s, trade unions.
Competition is a less violent form of opposition in which two or more persons or groups struggle for some goal objectives etc.So it’s a fundamental formof social struggle and takes place whenever there is an insufficient supply of things that human being commonly deserved. According to Park and Burgess (2009), “competition is an interaction without social contact”.
Biesanz, (1996) defines “competition is the striving of two or more persons for the same goal which is limited so that all cannot share”. There are various types of Competitions. They include the following:
• Social competition: people always compete for higher status and role.
• Economic competition: it can be viewed in the process of production, distribution and consumption of goods. E.g.; men compete for jobs,customers, wages, promotion,money,wealth etc.
• Political competition: in the modern world, competition for political power is always preserved. So they engaged in competition to secure power.
• Cultural competition: it may take place between two or more cultural groups. E.g.: ethnic, linguistic
According toOgburn andNimkoff (1964) “accommodation
is the termused to describe the adjustment of individuals or group into a new
situation”. Accommodation is the natural result of conflict. It says because various
forms of accommodationlike compromise, force, conversation etc are taken place
between the individuals or groups. So conflict cannot take place continuouslyand
they make room for accommodation. For Mac Iver (1962) the term
accommodation, refers to, “particularlya process inwhichman attains a sense of
harmonywith his or her environment.”
Assimilation is one of the types of interaction like accommodation is also a form of social adjustment.But it is more permanent than accommodation. If person to person, person to group, group to group or group to society relations etc.were to remain at the level of accommodation, and a co-operation between these elements put way for assimilation.When the process of assimilation takes place in two different groups come in contact with each other.
According to Ogburn and Nimcoff (1964), “assimilation is the process whereby individuals or groups once dissimilar become similar and identified in their own interest and out look.” Borgardus (1967),defines assimilationas “the social process whereby attitudes or feelings of many persons are united and thus develop into united group.”
Conflict is an ever present process in human relation. It is one of the forms of the struggle between individuals, groups etc.According to A.W.Green (1969), “conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose resist, the will of another or others”. Gillin andGillin (1948), defines conflict as “the social process in which individuals or groups seek their ends by directly challenging the form of violence or struggle.” Social conflicts revolve around social power. All kinds of social conflict struggle to get hold of power and its access to power ensures a groups success in attaining its goal.
Social conflict involves incompatibility, as unfulfilled need of others create discontent, and this incompatibility develop a vicious cycle and can be broken only when some strong social reform movements take place.E.g.,Un touchability that was prevalent in India.