Management – As a profession
A profession is an “ occupation backed by organized knowledge and training and to which entry is regulated by a representative body “.
Thus, all professions are occupations in the sense that they provide means of livelihood.
However, all occupations are not professions because some of them lack certain features of a profession.
Features of Profession :
(i) Organised body of knowledge, principles and techniques.
(ii) Formal training and education.
(iii) Restriction on entrance.
(iv) Existence of a representative body.
(v) Prevalence of a code of conduct.
(vi) Spirit of service to the society.
Application of the features to the management :
(i) Organised body of knowledge :
Management has its own body of system aliased knowledge which contains the principles and techniques. These principles established cause and effect relationships and are capable of universal application. A.P.M. Fleming has rightly remarked that management has ”. a technique quite a part from the technology of the particular works concerned.
( ii) Formal training and Education :
Management is not merely theory. Here the person is prepared to take practical decision in business. To import management education and training, there are a large number of formal institutes in various countries, including India. Several tools of management such as business, Psychology, Business law, Statistics, Data- processing, operations research and cost accounting etc. have been developed. The business houses today prefer to employ those managerial personal who have obtained a professional degree in management from some recognised institutes.
(iii) Restriction on Entrance :
Entrance into a profession is restricted by standards established by it. But management does not restrict the entry of people into managerial jobs with only a special academic degree.
(iv) Existence of an organisation :
Various management organisations have come into existence in India to guide the managers in
(i) To regulate the behaviours of members.
(ii) To create a code of conduct for guiding the activities of the Profession.
(iii) To promote and build up the image of management as a Profession.
In India, All India Management Association and Indian Association for Management Development were established to train the managers. Function of Association is to manage and co- ordinate the research work in the various areas of management. It is, however, true that norms of managerial behaviour have not yet been established and we do not have uniform methods of entry.
( v) Prevalence of a Code of Conduct :
Every profession formulates its own ethical codes for the conduct of its members. But there is no uniform code of conduct for the practicing managers. In spite of it, managers are socially responsible. They have to protect the interest of the owners,workers, suppliers, consumers and the government
(vi) Spirit of Service to the Society :
Though professionals charge fee for the service rendered, they give priority to service over the desire for monetary reward. For Ex: a doctor earns his livelihood from his profession of medicine but service to society is upper most in his mind. As managers enjoy the respect of society, they should also fulfill their social obligation.