Models of work place counseling applicable to social case work

Nature, characteristics and objectives of social case work

 The relationship between the client and case worker arise out of shared and emotionally charged situation.
 The case work relationship contains elements of acceptance, expectation, support and stimulation.

 The client and the case worker are interdependent.
 The case work relationship may have several therapeutic values.
 The case work relationship results in improvement of condition. The client is more adjusted in society.
 There is development of personality and capacity building.
 The relationship may need outside help in case of psychiatric illness, special education needs, sensory impairments, language and communication disorders also in case of family issues it may need family counselling.
 The social case worker maintains a dual focus on client and environment, working directly and indirectly on behalf of individual clients, their families and significant  others in the educational setting in need of social services.
 Social case work is based on the recognition that a trusting and empowering direct relationship between the social worker and the client is essential to expedite the client’s use of services along a continuum of case and to restore or maintain the client’s independent functioning to the fullest extent possible.
 Social case work rests on a body of established social work knowledge, technical expertise and humanistic values that allows for the provision of a specialized and unique service to designated client groups.
 This is a therapeutic process which is sensitive, supportive, established relationship which assesses complex problems, selects appropriate problem solving interventions thus helping clients to function effectively.

Some of the objectives of social case work in educational setting are:
 To make good rapport with clients and significant others in the educational setting with whom the case worker should work for alleviating the client’s difficulty. Once adequate rapport is established the clients will be more receptive to in-depth exploration of their concerns.
 Problem identification and exploration.
 To find out, understand and solve the internal problems of the client.
 To strengthen ones ego power.
 To prevent problems.
 To develop internal resources.
 To determine the point of termination.
The components of social case work are:
 Problem
 Person
 Place
 Process
Problem refers to the kind of difficulty the client is facing. It can be diverse ranging from academic difficulty to dyslexia, emotional problems, difficulties in family, relationship issues, peer pressure, difficulty to cope in the educational setting due to lack of good interpersonal relationship skills or communication, social problems, behavior problems, low self esteem, lack of motivation, anxiety, depression, lack of support and guidance in case of students with special education needs, substance abuse, psychological and psychiatric illness.

Person is the client who is facing the problem and is finding it difficult to cope and also cannot solve it by self. There, in educational setting, the clients are mainly students and their parents, also teachers and significant others who are also involved with the clients. Place here refers to the educational setting, it can be regular schools, learning centers, college, university.

Process:
 Intake and relationship establishment
 Problem identification and exploration
 Planning for problem solving, solution, application, and termination.
The client is helped to develop self understanding that recognizes the need for change and action.

The case work process starts with the intake of the case. This is followed by rapport building with the client, acceptance, respecting the client’s personality and helping in identifying and resolving the problem. The severity and nature of the problem, significant causes, onset of problem, the efforts to cope with the problem are studied in detail. The
social functioning of the client, the physical and mental health of the client, resources of
the client, intensity of feelings, nature of defense mechanisms and motivation in the client
to improve are assessed.

Diagnosis is the next step in the process. Deciding the line of treatment and the  herapeutic process follows. Here goal setting becomes the focus. It involves identifying and listing all possible solutions, exploring the consequences and prioritizing the solutions. Also to facilitate the client’s understanding, the case worker may use the techniques of repetition, mild confrontation, interpretation, information and encouragement.

Evaluation is the final stage in the case work process. The client has the responsibility for applying the determined point of termination. During the time, the client is actively engaged in identifying and on applying the solution. The case worker will often maintain
contact as a source of follow up and support. Once it has been determined that they
have dealt with the client‘s concern to the extent possible and practical, the process
should be terminated.