Scientific Management by F.W. Taylor
Frederick Winslow Taylor has made the major attempt to systematize the management theory through the publication of “ The Principles of Scientific Management “ in 1911. Eventually, he is known as the Father of Scientific Management. He wrote Scientific Management with his long experience as an engineer at various levels of functioning from an apprentice to the Chief Engineer of a steel company. His philosophy is also known as Taylorism.
According to F.W.Taylor, it is not proper to find just a way for doing something, a manager has to find the one right way. His major concern was to increase efficiency in production, it includes not only to lower costs and raise profits, but also to increase pay for workers through their higher productivity. Further he emphasized thatmanagers should be responsible for analysis and planning of work in advance, whereas workers should be responsible for the performance of the work as per plans.
Principles of Scientific Management :
Taylor has endeavored to introduce scientific approach in business and management and wanted to make it as exact as possible. The basic principles are stated as follows.
- Replacing rules of thump with science.
- Harmony in group action than discord.
- Cooperation than individualism.
- Working for maximum output than restricted output.
- Developing workers to the fullest extent.
Elements of Scientific Management :
F.W.Taylor opined ‘ Management is the art of knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.He advocated the following elements of Scientific Management.
Work Study :
Work Study is related to analyzing work to be performed by eliminating unnecessary operations and finding out the quicker way of doing it. Works study eliminates wasteful and unnecessary operations, and increases production through scientific principles such as.
- Time study : To determine the time required performing the job in the best possible way.
- Method Study : To keep the cost of production at the minimum level.
- Motion Study : Objects of motion study are.
- Studying the movements of operations and machines.
- Identifying and eliminating unnecessary and wasteful motions.
- Fatigue study : The object of this study is to examine how long a person can perform the standard task without causing any adverse effect on his health and efficiency.