Skills and Techniques of Group Work
According to Trecker, skill is the capacity to apply knowledge and understanding to a given situation. Trecker also has specified skills for social group work as follows:
1) Skill in Establishing Purposeful Relationships
A) The group worker must be skillful in gaining the acceptance of the group and in relating himself to the group on a positive professional basis.
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping individuals in the group to accept one another and to join with the group in common pursuits
2) Skill in Analyzing the Group Situation
A) The group worker must be skillful in judging the developmental level of the group to determine what the level is, what the group needs, and how quickly the group can be expected to move. This calls for skill in direct observation of groups as a basis for analysis and judgment.
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping the group to express ideas, work out objectives, clarify immediate goals, and see both its potentialities and limitations as a group.
3) Skill in Participation with the Group
A) The group worker must be skillful in determining, interpreting, assuming and modifying his own role with the group.
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping group members to participate, to locate leadership among themselves, and to take responsibility for their own activities.
4) Skill in Dealing with Group Feeling
A) The group worker must be skillful in controlling his own feelings about the group and must study each new situation with a high degree of objectivity.
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping groups to release their own feelings, both positive and negative.He must be skillful in helping groups to analyze situations as a part of the working through of group or inter group conflicts.
5) Skill in Programme Development
A) The group worker must be skillful in guiding group thinking so that interests and needs will be revealed and understood.
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping groups to develop programs which they want as a means through which their needs may be met.
6) Skill in Using Agency and Community Resources
A) The group worker must be skillful in locating and then acquainting the group with various helpful resources which can be utilized by them for program purposes
B) The group worker must be skillful in helping individual members to make use of specialized services by means of referral when they have needs which cannot be met within the group.
7) Skill in Evaluation
A) The group worker must have skill in recording the developmental processes that are going on as he works with the group.
B) The group worker must be skillful in using his records and in helping the group to review its experiences as a means of improvement.
Skills in Building Group Cohesiveness
The group worker must know his group members – their strengths, capacities, fears, problems and roles they can play in the group’s progress. The following are the other factors the worker needs to concentrate upon in building himself within the group:
Effective rapport building with the group members; to get on the same wave length with people easily and quickly
Winning the confidence and trust of people by accepting members as they are and enabling them to see the worth of every job that has to be done in the group large or small Establishing a good working relationship, based on friendship and mutual confidence that would facilitate influence over the group members
Ability to avoid splinter groups, especially sub group is my empathizing and thinking for all the group members. The group worker has to be cautious to interpret the silence of the group members. Silence always does not denote negative aspects; it could just indicate the individuals’ hesitation.
Skill to remain cool and composed while listening to the distasteful – understanding and internalizing the fact that two people can look at the same thing and look at it differently. It is important that the worker has to strengthen his inner self without getting upset or hitting back at unpleasantness of the group. He needs to understand that this is in light of the larger good of the group.
Capacity to get the group to willingly shoulder responsibilities rather than taking up all the burden on himself – the ability to segregate works that can be delegated and executing those which are best done by the worker.