Types of Cooperation and Role of Cooperation
Cooperation is of different types. MacIver and Page have divided cooperation into two main types namely, (i) Direct Cooperation (ii) Indirect Cooperation.
(i) Direct Cooperation
Under direct cooperation may be included all those activities in which people do like things together. For example, plying together, working together, carrying a load together or pulling the car out of mud together. The essential character of this kind of cooperation is that people do such identical function which they can also do separately. This type of cooperation is voluntary e.g., cooperation between husband and wife, teacher and student, master and servant etc.
(ii) Indirect Cooperation
Under indirect cooperation are in included those activities in which people do unlike tasks together towards a common end. For example, when carpenters, plumbers and masons cooperate to build a house. This cooperation is based on the principle of the division of labour. In it people perform different functions but for the attainment of the common objective. In the modern technological age, specialization of skills and function are more required for which indirect cooperation is rapidly replacing direct cooperation.
A.W. Green has classified cooperation into three main categories such as (i) Primary cooperation (ii) Secondary cooperation (iii) Tertiary cooperation.
(i) Primary Cooperation
This type of cooperation is found in primary groups such as the family. In this form, there is an identity of interests between the individuals and the group. The achievement of the interests of the group includes the realization of the individual’s interests.
(ii) Secondary Cooperation
Secondary cooperation is found in secondary groups such as Government, industry, trade union and church etc. For example, in an industry, each may work in cooperation with others for his own wages, salaries, promotion, profits and in some cases prestige and power. In this form of cooperation there is disparity of interests between the individuals.
(iii) Tertiary Cooperation
This type of cooperation is ground in the interaction between the various big and small groups to meet a particular situation. In it, the attitudes of the cooperating parties are purely opportunistic; the organization of their cooperation is both loose and fragile. For example, two political parties with different ideologies may get united to defeat their rival party in an election.
Ogburn and Nimikoff divided cooperation into three main types:
- General Cooperation
When some people cooperate for the common goals then there is cooperation, which is known as general cooperation e.g. cooperation found in cultural functions is the general cooperation.
- Friendly Cooperation
When we want to attain the happiness and contentment of our group we give cooperation to each other, then this type of cooperation is known as friendly cooperation e.g. dancing, singing, dating etc.
- Helping Cooperation
When some people work for the victims of famine or flood then this type of cooperation is known as helping cooperation.
Role of Cooperation
Cooperation is the most elementary form of social process without which society cannot exist. According to Kropotkin, it is so important in the life of an individual is that it is difficult to survive without it. Even among the lowest animals such as ants and termites, cooperation is evident for survival.
Cooperation is the foundation of our social life. The continuation of the human race requires the cooperation of male and female for reproduction and upbringing of children. Cooperation for human beings is both a psychological and social necessity. It is needed at every step in our life. If one does not cooperate with others, he is left to live a solitary life. The physical mental and even the spiritual needs of the individual remain unsatisfied if he does not agree to cooperate with his fellow-members. It is very difficult for a man to lead a happily conjugal life without the active cooperation of his wife and via-versa. Cooperation helps society to progress. Progress can better be achieved through united action. The outstanding progress in science and technology, agriculture and industry, transport and communication would not have been possible without Cooperation.
All the progress that mankind has made in the various fields is to be attributed to the cooperating spirit of the people. Cooperation is an urgent need of the present- day world. It is not only needed among the individuals and groups but also among the nations. It provides solutions for many international problems and disputes.