Weberian model of bureaucracy
Max Weber insisted on Bureaucracy with Authority. Max Weber classified Authority into three types as the following.
1) Legal Authority :
A Legal authority in an organisation is found, where organisation functions with rules, which are followed judiciously, by every employee. Such rules have validity which is limited to the organisation. The authority of superior is defined & it is obeyed by the subordinates.
2) Traditional Authority
Such a traditional authority is derived from the past. A person may not have legal or formal authority, but he /
she becomes master, by virtue of inherited status. The people obey & accept such an authority. Most of the long established customs & traditions lead to the emergence of such authority.
3. Charismatic Authority
A person exercises power, due to extraordinary qualities, Charisma, heroism, magnetism, over a large section of people & people accept such a superiority.
Based upon the analysis of the types of Authority, Max Weber, classifies his Bureaucratic model, based upon ‘Legal Rational – Authority.’ Such an authority is obeyed by the people.
Weberian Model of Bureaucracy :
The legal rational model of Bureaucracy is essentially a governmental Bureaucracy, which has following characteristics :
i) The Bureaucracy functions continuously. It is permanent.
ii) The Bureaucracy functions in accordance with definite rules & procedures. The power & authority is well defined, to ensure impersonal approach. The Authority brings corresponding resposibility. The authority cannot be beyond the official work of the organisation.
iii) Bureaucracy functions through proper division of work, authority flowing from top to down.
iv) A Bureaucrat should not misuse authority. Official business & private affairs should not be intermixed.
v) A Bureaucrat is responsible, accountable for the use of authority.
vi) A Bureaucrat cannot be appropriated by the incumbents as private property which can be sold or inherited.
Max Weber also described some of the qualities, necessary for a Bureaucrat. In his model of Bureaucracy, Weber underlines the
following Characteristics of a Bureaucrat.
i) A Bureaucrat is appointed in an official position on the basis of contract. A Bureaucrat is not committed to a person but to the work.
ii) A Bureaucrat exercises authority with impersonal approach. A Bureaucrat should be legal & faithful in the performance of duties.
iii) A Bureaucrat should have technical expertise & competence.
iv) A Bureaucrat should be paid adequate salary, other benefits & opportunities of promotion.
Thus legal-rational model Bureaucracy of Weber, has the following elements :
i) impersonal order
ii) Rules & regulations
iii) Competence & expertise
v) written rules & regulations.
vi) monocratic nature.
The main emphasis of weber was on careful selection of technically qualified people.