what is socialization?
what is socialization?
Socialization, according to Maciver, “is the process by which social beings establish wider and profounder relationships with one another, in which they become more bound up with, and
more perceptive of the personality of themselves and of others and build up the complex structure of nearer and wider association. Kimball Young writes. “Socialization will mean the process of inducting the individual into the social and cultural world; of making him a particular member in society and its various groups and indicting him to accept the norms and values of that society… Socialization is definitely a matter of learning and not of biological inheritance. It is through the process of socialization that the new born individual is moulded into a social being and men find their fulfillment within society.
Man becomes what he is by socialization. Bogardus defines socialization as the “process of working together, of developing group responsibility, of being guided by the welfare needs of others. According Ogburn, “Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.” Ross defined socialization as “the development of the we feeling in associates and their growth in capacity and will to act together.” Through the process of socialization the individual becomes a social person and attains personality. Gillin and Gillin write, “By the term ‘socialization’ we mean the process by which individual develops into a functioning member of the group according to its standards, conforming to its modes, observing its traditions and adjusting himself to the social situations.” Socialization is the process whereby the individual acquires the conventional patterns of human behaviours. According to Lundberg, socialization consists of the “complex processes of interaction through which the individual learns the habits, skills, beliefs and standards of judgment that are necessary for his effective participation in social group and communities.” Socialization is a learning that enables the learner to perform social roles.” According to Green, “Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content, along with selfhood and personality. According to Horton and Hunt, “Socialization is the process whereby one internalizes the norms of his groups, so that a distinct “self” emerges, unique to this individual. H.T. nature is transformed into human nature and the individual into person.” Every man tries to adjust himself to the condition and environment predominantly determined by the society of which he is a member. If he fails to do so, he becomes a social deviant and is brought back into line by the efforts so the group of which he is a member. This process of adjustment may be termed socialization. It is the opposite of individualization. It is a process of the expansion of the self. It develops in him the community feeling.
Socialization may be differentiated from socially and socialism. Sociality is a quality, socialization is a process. Sociality may mean the capacity to mix with others, to enter into relations with them easily and comfortably. Man is a socialized animal, though he may not possess of socialization one comes to acquire the quality of sociality.
Socialism. Socialism is a theory, not a quality or process. It is a theory of future structure of society. So much vagueness surrounds this word ‘socialism’ that it is very difficult to define it in exact terms. Every person and party brand themselves as socialist. Very appropriately Joad had compared socialism to a hat which has lost its shape because every one wears it. In a stricter sense socialism is the theory that the means of production, exchange and distribution should be owned and controlled either by the state or by other associations directly responsible to community. Such ownership will result in a more equitable distribution of wealth, security for the people against poverty, disease and ignorance. In any case socialism concerns itself with what ought to be.
Socialization may also be distinguished from ‘maturation.’ Maturation refers primarily to the physical and chemical processes of development over which man has comparatively little control. It is the growing up and gradual changing of the organism. Socialization is a process of learning through which he acquires the habits and patterned behaviour. It designates all of the social
processes and pressures by which the norms and standards of a group or community are inculcated in the beliefs and behaviours of the individuals members.